E-Knjižnica FET "Dr. Mijo Mirković"

Virtual communities for the creation of scientific and entrepreneurial parks in transition countries

Bianchi, Massimo and Tampieri, Laura (2007) Virtual communities for the creation of scientific and entrepreneurial parks in transition countries. In: 4th International Conference "Global Challenges for Competitiveness: Business and Government Perspective", 27-29. 9. 2007., Pula, Croatia.

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This paper aims to examine problems connected with the definition of Scientific and Entrepreneurial Park (SEP) and its concrete applications in Transition Countries through virtual communities. As stated by National Science Foundation, SEP is considered in current Literature as an instrument to enhance innovative research, education, and knowledge-transfer in the local system with an international perspective. SEP is a complex organization among academic institutions, national laboratories, industrial organizations, and/or other public/private entities to create new and meaningful knowledge of significant benefit to society . Some of them operate as independent organizations, some have national and international ties, but there isn’t a clear understanding of the dimensions in which these activities are linked with the developing and fostering of new technological entities, considered relevant for growth, employment and competitiveness. IASP considers that SEPs build intellectual and physical infrastructures for the creation, integration, and transfer of new knowledge, but at the ssame time didn’t propose in a clear way a persuaded set of indexes and parameters to detect this impact on people, local system and global society, and the same situation is concerning SEPs organizational functions in improving different dimensions of the local system. The lack of this framework is visible in difficulties emerging in actions supporting policies to encourage SEP proposals for high quality innovative research projects. Summarizing the current state of art, although the general diffusion of SEP in different structures and sectors and the stress on clustering and networking activities, till now it didn’t exist a clear, real, unambiguous as well as operative SEP model. Also in the last 6th European program, studies on “International knowledge and Innovation Networks for European Integration, Cohesion and Enlargement” didn’t mention a clear and applied knowledge of SEP or a minimum of definition. Comparing theoretical and methodological understanding of an European SEP it is prevailing empirical results mainly connected to the practical activity of IASP and its efforts to create a concrete frame of knowledge about this issue. Another source is the activity of international organizations like UNIDO that undertook an essay to define new processes in territorial development concerning entrepreneurship and SME diffusion in non developed area or Transition Countries and the impact of previous policies and interventions. Although it referred to extreme situations, the result of these studies has to be considered for SWOT analysis of new tools in improving growth and competitiveness in high tech and welfare countries (P. Bianchi 1997). By the way, park traditional concept is connected to the preservation of local system features, while the SEP involves innovation and growth issues. The European Commission considered many times the cluster as a model of European development and a result of a processes linked to territorial resources and intangible assets. Moreover clusters are indicated as innovation drivers particularly in high tech. Side by side with this process it have been created and diffused in Europe, connected to the globalisation, many Parks with different subjects, structures and users. The SEP definition still accepted is “an organisation managed by specialised professionals, whose main aim is to increase the wealth of its community by promoting the culture of innovation and the competitiveness of its associated businesses and knowledge-based institutions ” (IASP,2002). SEP stimulates and manages the flow of knowledge and technology among universities, R&D institutions, companies and citizens; it facilitates the creation and growth of innovation-based enterprises through incubation and spin-off processes and provides other value-added services together with high quality space and facilities. Till now there is a lack of coherent perception of Scientific Parks and namely in European perspective concerning structures and processes, strategies and policies to improve the idea of SEP integrated with the environment, the local network, the enterprises (particularly SMEs), public entities and research centres. So far the SEP relevance in Transition Countries has two main motivations: experimental and applicative. From a research point of view we can consider SEP pilot experiences in those countries, featured by highlight diversity in levels and methods of development comparing them to Occidental ones, and particularly to European in which SEP was originated as a tool of applied knowledge transfer in an innovation society. SEP represents an instrument that in last times created many expectations testified not only by the spontaneous spread of these organizational frameworks but also by projects increasingly submitted on this subject also in the field of pure research. The Authors’ researches consider the experiences of project management for the creation of SEPs in three Transition Countries as Albania (Elbasan) , Macedonia (Ohrid) and Serbia (Subotica). In these projects a relevant role is played by the virtual reality connected to: 1.The comparison between effective and perceived performance; 2.The distance learning through out virtual organizations; 3.The virtual communities baseD on the model SecondLife. Although the utilities of this approach aren’t recognized by the existing Literature in despite to some enthusiastic opinions (Dede 2004; Dede et al. 2005; Dickey 2005; Terdiman 2005; Kemp and Livingstone 2007) coming from users community, the virtual reality is increasing and affecting, in a creeping ways, the project management, particularly as it concerns Transition Countries in which politicians, entrepreneurs, managers and researchers have continuously to evaluate the adequacy of their models and decisions to a faster changing situation. The paper will discuss these topics as a feature of the actual evolution in managerial techniques.

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Tip objekta: Materijal konferencije ili radionice (Paper)
Dodatne informacije: 4/2007
Teme: 3 Društvene znanosti > 33 Ekonomija. Ekonomska znanost > 330 Ekonomija općenito > 330.4 Matematička ekonomija > 330.47 Ekonomska informatika
6 Tehnologija (primijenjene znanosti) > 65 Menadžment i organizacija industrije, trgovine i komunikacija > 65.01 Metode i metodologija. Teorija i praksa organizacije > 65.012.4 Menadžment. Uprava. Ravnateljstvo Tehnike i metode upravljanja
Odjeli: Odjel za ekonomiju i turizam "Dr. Mijo Mirković"
Datum pohrane: 17 Oct 2012 11:38
Zadnja promjena: 19 Nov 2012 12:53
URI: http://eknjiznica.unipu.hr/id/eprint/1632

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